Re-Entry—Ensure Successful Reintegration After Incraceration
1 National Institute of Justice, Recidivism, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/corrections/recidivism/welcome.htm (last visited Jan. 18, 2011) (citing Allen J. Beck & Bernard E. Shipley, Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report (1989), abstract available at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=1135; Patrick A. Langan & David J. Levin, Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report (2002), abstract available at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=1134); Richard Freeman, Can We Close the Revolving Door?: Recidivism vs. Employment of Ex-Offenders in the U.S. (2003), available at http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/410857_freeman.pdf.
2 Legal Action Center, After Prison: Roadblocks to Reentry, http://www.lac.org/roadblocks-to-reentry/main.php?view=overview. (last visited Jan. 18, 2011).
3 Amy L. Solomon, et al., Life After Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community, Urban Inst. XV (May 2008), available at http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411660_life_after_lockup.pdf.
4 John Schmitt, Kris Warner & Sarika Gupta, Center for Economic and Policy Research, The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration, (June 2010), available at http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/incarceration-2010-06.pdf.
5 Right on Crime, The Conservative Case for Reform, Statement of Principles, http://www.rightoncrime.com/the-conservative-case-for-reform/statement-of-principles/ (last visited Jan 18, 2011) (signatories include Newt Gingrich, Grover Norquist, Edwin Meese, III, William J. Bennett, Asa Hutchinson, and other leading conservatives).,
6 See generally Juvenile Justice, Smart on Crime (2011) (discussing additional reentry barriers for youth).
7 Second Chance Act of 2007, Pub. L. No. 110-199, 122 Stat. 657 (2008); see also Second Chance Act, National Reentry Resource Center, http://www.nationalreentryresourcecenter.org/about/second-chance-act (last visited Jan. 18, 2011).
8 Press Release, George W. Bush, President of the United States, Statement at Signing of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (Apr. 9, 2008), available at http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/04/20080409-2.html.
10 The Sentencing Project, Felony Disenfranchisement Laws in the United States (Mar. 2010), available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/fd_bs_fdlawsinusMarch2010.pdf.
11 Erika Wood, Brennan Center for Justice, Restoring the Right to Vote, (May 11, 2009), available at http://brennan.3cdn.net/5c8532e8134b233182_z5m6ibv1n.pdf.
12 Felony Disenfranchisement Laws in the United States, supra note 10, at 1.
13 Erika Wood & Rachel Bloom, American Civil Liberties Union and Brennan Center for Justice, De Facto Disenfranchisement (Oct. 2008), available at http://brennan.3cdn.net/578d11c906d81d548f_1tm6iiqab.pdf.
14 Democracy Restoration Act of 2009: Hearing on H.R. 3335 Before the Subcomm. on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 111th Cong. (Mar. 16, 2010) (statement of Carl Wicklund, Executive Director, American Probation and Parole Association), available at http://brennan.3cdn.net/047d04ef2d0893df95_t8m6y9g01.pdf; Democracy Restoration Act of 2009: Hearing on H.R. 3335 Before the Subcomm. on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 111th Cong. (Mar. 16, 2010) (statement of Marc Mauer, Executive Director, The Sentencing Project), available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/fd_DRATestimonyMarch2010.pdf.
15 Statement of Marc Mauer, supra note 14, at 3.
16 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-193, § 115, 110 Stat. 2105, 2180-81 (1996).
17 See Legal Action Center, After Prison: Roadblocks to Reentry 2009 Update (2009), available at http://www.lac.org/roadblocks-to-reentry/upload/lacreport/Roadblocks-to-Reentry--2009.pdf.
19 See Letter from Nora D. Volkow, M.D., Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), to Friends, Colleagues and Parents (Jan. 2002) (“Researchers have long recognized the strong correlation between stress and substance abuse, particularly in prompting relapse.”), available at http://archives.drugabuse.gov/stressalert/StressAlert.html.
20 See Legal Action Center, Getting to Work: How TANF can Support Ex-Offender Parents in the Transition to Self-Sufficiency (2001).
21 1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965, Pub. L. No. 105-244, § 483(f) (1998).
22 Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-171, § 8021(c) (Feb. 8, 2006).
23 SeeCenter on Crime Communities & Culture, Occasional Paper Series No. 2, Research Brief: Education as Crime Prevention (Sept. 1997), available at http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/research_brief__2.pdf.
24 Stephen Steurer, Linda Smith & Alice Tracy, The Three State Recidivism Study Summary, Correctional Education Association (2001), available at http://dpscs.md.gov/publicinfo/publications/pdfs/three-state-recidivism-study-summary.pdf.
25 42 U.S.C. §13663(a) (2006).
26 42 U.S.C. §1437n(f) (2006).
27 42 U.S.C. §13661(a) (2006).
29 Legal Action Center, Advocacy Toolkit: Improving Housing Opportunities for Individuals with Conviction Records, http://www.lac.org/toolkits/housing/housing.htm (last visited Jan. 19, 2011).
31 M. Eisenberg, Project RIO: Twelve Month Follow-u:, March 1989 Intakes, Tex. Dept. of Crim. Justice (1990); Jeremy Travis, Amy L. Solomon & Michelle Waul, From Prison to Home: The Dimensions and Consequences of Prisoner Reentry, Urban Inst. Justice. Policy Center (June 1, 2001).
32 Nat’l Inst. On Drug Abuse, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Servs., Treatment Approaches for Drug Addition 1 (Sept. 2009), available at http://www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/InfoFacts/IF_Treatment_Approaches_2009_to_NIDA_92209.pdf.
33 Nat’l Inst. On Drug Abuse, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Servs., Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use (2009), available at http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/overview2009.pdf.
34 Nora D. Volkow, Treat the Addict, Cut the Crime Rate, The Washington Post, Aug. 19, 2006, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/18/AR2006081800799.html.
35 The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America’s Prison Population, 34 (Jan. 1998).
36 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Servs. Admin., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Servs., Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Referred by the Criminal Justice System, The TEDS Report (Aug. 13, 2009), available at http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k9/211/211CJadmits2k9.htm.
37 Elizabeth Drake, et al., Evidence-based Public Policy Options to Reduce Future Prison Construction, Criminal Justice Costs, and Crime Rates, Washington State Inst. for Pub. Policy (2006).
38 23 U.S.C. §159 (2006).
39 See 49 C.F.R. 391.41(b)(12) (2009).
41 Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Finding the Key to Successful Transition from Jail or Prison to the Community (Nov. 2009), available at http://www.bazelon.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Bd6LW9BVRhQ%3d&tabid=104
42 See Henry Steadman et al., Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness Among Jail Inmates, 60 Psychiatric Services 761-65 (2009) (accessed on July 21, 2009), available at http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/60/6/761.
43 See E. Fuller Torrey, Reinventing Mental Health Care, 9-4 City Journal, (Autumn 1999), available at http://www.city-journal.org/html/9_4_a5.html (last visited Jan. 19, 2011).
44 Doris J. James & Lauren E. Glaze, Bureau of Just. Stat., Special Report: Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates (2006), available at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/mhppji.pdf (last visited Jan. 19, 2011).
45 Social Security Administration, Social Security: What Prisoners Need to Know (May 2010), available at http://www.ssa.gov/pubs/10133.pdf.
47 Second Chance Act of 2007, supra note 7.
48 Press Release, Dep’t of Just., Att’y Gen. Eric Holder Convenes Inaugural Cabinet-Level Reentry Council: Interagency Meeting Focuses on Reducing Recidivism, Saving Taxpayer Dollars, Making Communities Safer (Jan. 5, 2011) (“The council will address short-term and long-term goals through enhanced communication, coordination and collaboration across federal agencies. The mission of the council is threefold: to make communities safer by reducing recidivism and victimization; to assist those returning from prison and jail in becoming productive, tax paying citizens; and to save taxpayer dollars by lowering the direct and collateral costs of incarceration.”), available at http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2011/January/11-ag-010.html.
49 Statement of Carl Wicklund, supra note 14; Statement of Marc Mauer, supra note 14.
50 Democracy Restoration Act, H.R. 3335 and S. 1516, 111th Cong. (2009).
51 For a complete list of individuals and groups that support the Democracy Restoration Act, see, Brennan Center for Justice, Democracy Restoration Act, http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/democracy_restoration_act_of_2008/ (last visited Jan. 18, 2011).
52 See Letter from Nora D. Volkow to Friends, Colleagues and Parents, supra note 19.
53 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, supra note 16.
54 Food Assistance to Improve Reintegration Act, H.R. 329, 111th Cong. (2009).
55 To amend the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to repeal the denial to drug felons of eligibility for benefits under the program of temporary assistance for needy families, H.R. 3053, 111th Cong. (2009).
56 Higher Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1091(r) (2009).
57 No One Strike Eviction Act, H.R. 69, 111th Cong. (2009).
58 Public Safety Ex-Offender Self-Sufficiency Act, H.R. 6205, 109th Cong. (2006).
59 In 1994, Congress eliminated Pell Grant eligibility for individuals who are incarcerated because of concerns that allowing individuals to receive the need based grants while in prison was taking money away from law abiding citizens. These concerns existed despite the fact that prison-based higher education accounted for only 0.1% of the Pell Grant budget. Between 1995 and 2005, the number of college degree programs inside state prisons plummeted from about 350 to about 12.
60 See Alfred Blumstein & Kiminori Nakamura, “Redemption” in an Era of Widespread Criminal Background Checks, 263 Nat’l Inst. Just. J. 10-17 (June 2009) (discussing research that suggests a convicted individual’s risk of recidivism after 8 years post-conviction is equal to or lesser than the risk a similarly aged member of the general public will commit a crime), available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/226872.pdf.
61 Fairness and Accuracy in Employment Background Checks Act, H.R. 5300, 111th Cong. (2010).
62 See National Employment Law Project, FBI Bill Fact Sheet (June 1, 2010), available at http://www.nelp.org/page/-/SCLP/2010/FBIBillFactSheet.pdf?nocdn=1.
63 Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-220, 112 Stat. 936 (1998).
64 26 U.S.C. § 51 (2006).
65 See Department of Labor, Federal Bonding Program: A US Department of Labor Initiative, http://www.bonds4jobs.com/ (last visited Jan. 19, 2011).
66 42 U.S.C. § 300x-21 et seq.
67 See 49 C.F.R. 391.41(b)(12) (2009).
68 Nat’l Ass’n of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc., Methadone Maintenance Treatment and the Criminal Justice System, 11-12 (April 2006), available at http://www.nasadad.org/resource.php?base_id=650. In an open letter to her colleagues, Judge Karen Freeman-Wilson, then Executive Director of the National Drug Court Institute, commented that “the review of our positions regarding the use of pharmacotherapies will require us to examine our own opinions and biases. Early in my career as a drug court judge, I announced that methadone had no place in my court. When my position was challenged, I did [my] homework and learned that the use of drugs to address opiate addiction was often necessary in assisting our clients….” Id.at 12 (quoting Karen Freeman-Wilson, NADCP News: From the Chief Executive’s Desk, Nat’l Ass’n of Drug Court Prof’ls, 6 (2004)).
69 Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, supra note 41.
70 Recidivism Reduction Act, H.R. 2829, 111th Cong. (2009).
71 Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act, Pub. L. No. 108-414, 118 Stat. 2327 (2004).
72 See Children’s Health Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-310, § 3210, 114 Stat. 1101, 1201-03 (2000).
73 18 U.S.C. § 3607
74 H.R. 6059, 111th Cong. (2010).
75 18 U.S.C. § 5005 et seq. (repealed in 1984).
76 “Between 1950 and 1984, federal law provided an additional avenue of relief for offenders between the ages of 18 and 26, who could petition to have their convictions ‘set aside’ after successful completion of probation under the Federal Youth Corrections Act (YCA). While the effect of this set-aside was never settled in the courts, the Sentencing Reform Act repealed the YCA, and nothing replaced it.” Margaret C. Love, Alternatives to Conviction: Deferred Adjudication as a Way of Avoiding Collateral Consequences 22-1 Fed. Sent’g Rep. 6, 8 (Oct. 2009).
77 See Pardon Power and Executive Clemency, Smart on Crime (2011).